<HTML><BODY style="word-wrap: break-word; -khtml-nbsp-mode: space; -khtml-line-break: after-white-space; ">Carl,<DIV><BR class="khtml-block-placeholder"></DIV><DIV>Although this does not quite fit into your category, there is the taxonomically interesting case of a well-known red-tide dinoflagellate that was described from living material as Gonyaulax polyedrum, and subsequently transferred to a fossil genus Lingulodinium.  This is also a "living fossil" in that L. machaerophorum is known from the Late Paleocene.  A nomenclatural history (from Head, 1996, p. 1228) follows:</DIV><DIV><BR class="khtml-block-placeholder"></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;">Genus </SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;"><I>Lingulodinium </I></SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;">Wall 1967, emend. Dodge 1989. This genus was originally</SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;">erected for cyst-based taxa and has as its type a Miocene cyst-based</SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;">species, </SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;"><I>Lingulodinium machaerophorum</I></SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;">. Dodge (1989) emended the diagnosis</SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;">of </SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;"><I>Lingulodinium </I></SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;">to include theca-based characters, and transferred to</SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;">this genus the theca-based species </SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;"><I>Gonyaulax polyedra </I></SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;">von Stein 1883, as</SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;"><I>Lingulodinium polyedrum </I></SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Palatino" size="1"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-size: 7px;">(von Stein 1883) Dodge 1989.</SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV><BR class="khtml-block-placeholder"></DIV><DIV><BR class="khtml-block-placeholder"></DIV><DIV>There must be many examples of microfossils first described buried in sediments and later discovered alive. Perhaps a trawl through Ehrenberg's species will turn up some examples.  Then there's the question of what consititutes a fossil.  According to the Botanical Code, a specimen is required to have stratigraphic context to be eligible for fossil status -- so it could be a dead specimen lying on, or close below the surface, of the sea floor!</DIV><DIV><BR class="khtml-block-placeholder"></DIV><DIV>Martin </DIV><DIV><BR class="khtml-block-placeholder"></DIV><DIV><BR><DIV><DIV>On 7 Mar 2007, at 09:37, Carl Mehling wrote:</DIV><BR class="Apple-interchange-newline"><BLOCKQUOTE type="cite"> Hi All,<BR> Some have suggested that I look into “living fossils.” The examples I am looking for are not necessarily “living fossils.” To me, that term describes taxa whose lineages have an extremely long geological records and which persist today in basically the same form. This would be things like <I>Latimeria</I>, cockroaches, <I>Lingula</I>, lycopods, etc. But I am only looking for taxa that were first known as fossils and then were subsequently found extant. This would include things like the XXX known from 4 million year old fossils and then later found alive today, as well as things like coelacanths, but not things like horseshoe crabs. I also wouldn’t consider the XXX a “living fossil” because of its relatively recent oldest fossil occurrence.<BR> Best,<BR> Carl<BR><BR> <X-SIGSEP><P> Carl Mehling<BR> Fossil Amphibian, Reptile, and Bird Collections<BR> Division of Paleontology <BR> American Museum of Natural History<BR> Central Park West @79th Street<BR> New York, NY  10024<BR> (212) 769-5849<BR> Fax: (212) 769-5842<BR> <A href="mailto:cosm@amnh.org">cosm@amnh.org</A><BR> </P></X-SIGSEP><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; ">_______________________________________________</DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; ">Paleonet mailing list</DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><A href="mailto:Paleonet@nhm.ac.uk">Paleonet@nhm.ac.uk</A></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><A href="http://mailman.nhm.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/paleonet">http://mailman.nhm.ac.uk/mailman/listinfo/paleonet</A></DIV> </BLOCKQUOTE></DIV><BR><DIV> <SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="border-collapse: separate; border-spacing: 0px 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; text-align: auto; -khtml-text-decorations-in-effect: none; text-indent: 0px; -apple-text-size-adjust: auto; text-transform: none; orphans: 2; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; "><BR class="Apple-interchange-newline"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="border-collapse: separate; border-spacing: 0px 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; text-align: auto; -khtml-text-decorations-in-effect: none; text-indent: 0px; -apple-text-size-adjust: auto; text-transform: none; orphans: 2; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="border-collapse: separate; border-spacing: 0px 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; text-align: auto; -khtml-text-decorations-in-effect: none; text-indent: 0px; -apple-text-size-adjust: auto; text-transform: none; orphans: 2; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; "><DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; font: normal normal normal 12px/normal Helvetica; min-height: 14px; ; font-family: Helvetica; "><BR style="; font-family: Helvetica; "></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Helvetica"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Helvetica; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Helvetica; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Helvetica; ">------------------------------------------------------------------------</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">Martin J. Head</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">Professor</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">Department of Earth Sciences</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">BROCK UNIVERSITY</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">500 Glenridge Avenue</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">St. Catharines, Ontario L2S 3A1</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">CANADA</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">Tel</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">  </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">905-688-5550 ext. 5216</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">Fax</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">  </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">905-682-9020</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></DIV><DIV style="margin-top: 0px; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; margin-left: 0px; "><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">Email</SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; ">  </SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT><FONT class="Apple-style-span" face="Times"><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><SPAN class="Apple-style-span" style="font-family: Times; "><A href="mailto:mjhead@brocku.ca">mjhead@brocku.ca</A></SPAN></SPAN></SPAN></FONT></DIV>www.brocku.ca/earthsciences/people/mhead.php<DIV><DIV> and</DIV><DIV>Professor (status only), Department of Geology, University of Toronto, Canada</DIV><DIV>Senior Member, Wolfson College, University of Cambridge, UK</DIV><DIV><BR class="khtml-block-placeholder"></DIV><BR class="khtml-block-placeholder"></DIV></DIV><BR class="Apple-interchange-newline"></SPAN></SPAN></SPAN> </DIV><BR></DIV></BODY></HTML>